Indus valley civilization was a bronze age civilization located in south Asia, extending from today’s Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest part of India. It was one of three early civilizations of the old world, other two were Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and it was the largest of all three. Just like any other ancient civilization, it flourished in the basins of Indus river which was equivalent of Nile in ancient Egypt.
Although the Indus valley civilization existed for thousands of years but historians divide its age into three different time periods. Mature Harappan period dated from 2600-1900 BCE, while early Harappan and late Harappan periods lasted from 3300-2600 and 1900-1300 BCE respectively. Harappa was the most prominent city and it was also the first city discovered by archaeologists which is why Indus valley civilization is also known as Harappa civilization.
Before jumping into the list let’s clear one point, Indus valley people were literate and had a language, but for some reason we still can’t read their language so, everything we know about them is due to archaeology.
10. They Were Ahead Of Their Time
An artist’s reconstruction of the gateway and drain at the city of Harappa (image via; sci-news.com)
An extremely sophisticated and technically advanced culture of its time is evident throughout the Indus valley civilization. The cities that were built by them were absolutely amazing, particularly “Harappa” and “Mohenjo-Daro”. They had the dense cluster of multistory nonresidential buildings, homes that were constructed using uniformly sized baked bricks, some homes were in a special orientation to catch the wind and provide natural form of air conditioning, they even had their own version of flushing toilets.
The people of Indus valley civilization placed high priority on hygiene too. Harappa and mohenjo-daro had the world’s first sanitation system. Most homes were connected with the centralized drainage system to carry waste and water with the help of gravity, this kind of system was pinnacle for 18th century Europe. The ancient Indus sewage and drainage system that were used throughout the Indus region, were leagues ahead of any contemporary urban city of middle east. It is also believed that their drainage system was more efficient than those in many areas of today’s India and Pakistan.
There’s an apparent indication of some kind of government that were taking and implementing complex decisions. Construction of cities were done in highly uniform and a well planned grid pattern. They probably didn’t have monarchy system, but had different rulers for different cities.